COPYRIGHT FAQs

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COPYRIGHT FAQs

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If you are the creator or author of a book, play, musical composition, graphic design, photo, or other creative work, you can protect your work through a copyright. By obtaining a copyright, you are claiming ownership of your work, which comes with rights and protections.

At the law office of Parsons & Goltry, we represent the creators of all types of creative work. To learn more about obtaining a copyright, please read the information below. Otherwise, feel free to contact our law office in Scottsdale, Arizona, to speak to one of our intellectual property lawyers.  We offer a free consultation.

WHAT IS A COPYRIGHT?

A copyright is a bundle of rights assigned to one who creates an original work of authorship that is fixed in a tangible form that can be perceived either with or without the aid of an instrument. In the bundle are the rights to publish, perform publicly, record, reproduce, display, and make new versions of the work. The rights provided by a copyright promote expression and ensure that authors will derive benefits from their creative efforts.

A copyright is a form of protection provided to the authors of “original works of authorship” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works, both published and unpublished. The 1976 Copyright Act generally gives the owner of copyright the exclusive right to reproduce the copyrighted work, to prepare derivative works, to distribute copies or phonorecords of the copyrighted work, to perform the copyrighted work publicly, or to display the copyrighted work publicly.

A copyright protects the form of expression rather than the subject matter of the writing. For example, a description of a machine could be copyrighted, but this would only prevent others from copying the description; it would not prevent others from writing a description of their own or from making and using the machine. Copyrights are registered by the Copyright Office of the Library of Congress.

A copyright is the only way to protect the expression of ideas, and attaches to fixed expression automatically. Additional benefits are derived by filing for copyright registration.

WHAT FORMS OF EXPRESSION ARE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT?

Literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic works are protected by copyright. These kinds of expression can be found in motion pictures, screenplays, computer programs, novels, sculptures, songs, fabric designs, sound recordings, etc.

WHAT FORMS OF EXPRESSION ARE NOT PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT?

Expression not fixed in a tangible form, ideas, methods, mathematical principles, formulas, and equations are not protected by copyright.

HOW TO GET A COPYRIGHT AND WHAT IS US COPYRIGHT REGISTRATION?

To get a copyright, all that is required is that expression be fixed into a tangible form. Copyright registration is made through the U.S. Copyright Office and is a legal formality intended to make a public record of the basic facts of a particular copyright. Registration is not a condition of copyright protection. To obtain the added benefits of a copyright registration, it is important to register a copyright within three months of a first publication.

Note: “Publication” is the distribution of copies or phonorecords of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending. The offering to distribute copies or phonorecords to a group of persons for purposes of further distribution, public performance, or public display constitutes publication. A public performance or display of a work does not of itself constitute publication.

WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO REGISTER A COPYRIGHT?

Copyright registration is important for many reasons, namely, it gives you the ability to sue another for infringing your copyright and it gives you access to certain remedies including statutory damages if the registration application was filed within three months of a first publication, and attorney fees. If the registration application is not filed within three months of a first publication, statutory damages are not available, and you can only pursue actual damages, i.e., proven damages.

Registration establishes a public record of a copyright claim and, if made before or within five years of publication, will establish prima facie evidence in court of the validity of the copyright and of the facts stated in the certificate. Registration also allows the owner of the copyright to record the registration with the United States Customs Service for protection against the importation of infringing copies.

Copyright registration may be made at any time within the life of the copyright. Unlike the law before 1978, when a work has been registered in unpublished form, it is not necessary to make another registration when the work becomes published, although the copyright owner may register the published edition, if desired.

HOW LONG DOES A COPYRIGHT LAST?

The term of copyright for a particular work depends on several factors, including whether it has been published, and, if so, the date of first publication. As a general rule, for works created after January 1, 1978, copyright protection lasts for the life of the author plus 70 years. For an anonymous work, a pseudonymous work, or a work made for hire, the copyright endures for a term of 95 years from the year of its first publication or a term of 120 years from the year of its creation, whichever expires first. For works first published prior to 1978, the term will vary depending on several factors. The registration of works created on or after January 1, 1978, need not be renewed. For works published or registered prior to January 1, 1978, renewal registration is optional after 28 years but does provide certain legal advantages.

Our office is located in Scottsdale, Arizona, but we serve clients in California, Washington, Idaho and throughout the United States.

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